I have to confess that I’m still looking for the “right” languages for me. First of all, I’m a scientist and not a programmer, and I DON’T want to be a programmer! On the other hand, writing algorithms and programming is what I do as a major part of my scientific life. Therefore, of course MATLAB is my first choice, and I know it well. But sometimes MATLAB is not enough. It is fine for scientific computations and proof of concept, but there are better ways to do other things.
I don’t need my programs to be portable, or to ship/sell them. All the projects are for personal use, or for the scientific community. Therefore I’m not concerned with compatibility problems.